Using os.walk() to recursively traverse directories in Python

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Question :

Using os.walk() to recursively traverse directories in Python

I want to navigate from the root directory to all other directories within and print the same.

Here’s my code:


import os
import fnmatch

for root, dir, files in os.walk("."):
        print root
        print ""
        for items in fnmatch.filter(files, "*"):
                print "..." + items
        print ""

And here’s my O/P:




Above, . and ./packagedemo are directories.

However, I need to print the O/P in the following manner:


Above, A and B are directories and the rest are files.

Asked By: Nitaai


Answer #1:

This will give you the desired result


import os

# traverse root directory, and list directories as dirs and files as files
for root, dirs, files in os.walk("."):
    path = root.split(os.sep)
    print((len(path) - 1) * '---', os.path.basename(root))
    for file in files:
        print(len(path) * '---', file)
Answered By: Ajay

Answer #2:

try this:

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

""" ..."""

__author__  = "legendmohe"

import os
import argparse
import time

class FileTreeMaker(object):

    def _recurse(self, parent_path, file_list, prefix, output_buf, level):
        if len(file_list) == 0 
            or (self.max_level != -1 and self.max_level <= level):
            file_list.sort(key=lambda f: os.path.isfile(os.path.join(parent_path, f)))
            for idx, sub_path in enumerate(file_list):
                if any(exclude_name in sub_path for exclude_name in self.exn):

                full_path = os.path.join(parent_path, sub_path)
                idc = "??"
                if idx == len(file_list) - 1:
                    idc = "??"

                if os.path.isdir(full_path) and sub_path not in self.exf:
                    output_buf.append("%s%s[%s]" % (prefix, idc, sub_path))
                    if len(file_list) > 1 and idx != len(file_list) - 1:
                        tmp_prefix = prefix + "?  "
                        tmp_prefix = prefix + "    "
                    self._recurse(full_path, os.listdir(full_path), tmp_prefix, output_buf, level + 1)
                elif os.path.isfile(full_path):
                    output_buf.append("%s%s%s" % (prefix, idc, sub_path))

    def make(self, args):
        self.root = args.root
        self.exf = args.exclude_folder
        self.exn = args.exclude_name
        self.max_level = args.max_level

        print("root:%s" % self.root)

        buf = []
        path_parts = self.root.rsplit(os.path.sep, 1)
        buf.append("[%s]" % (path_parts[-1],))
        self._recurse(self.root, os.listdir(self.root), "", buf, 0)

        output_str = "n".join(buf)
        if len(args.output) != 0:
            with open(args.output, 'w') as of:
        return output_str

if __name__ == "__main__":
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
    parser.add_argument("-r", "--root", help="root of file tree", default=".")
    parser.add_argument("-o", "--output", help="output file name", default="")
    parser.add_argument("-xf", "--exclude_folder", nargs='*', help="exclude folder", default=[])
    parser.add_argument("-xn", "--exclude_name", nargs='*', help="exclude name", default=[])
    parser.add_argument("-m", "--max_level", help="max level",
                        type=int, default=-1)
    args = parser.parse_args()

you will get this:

?  ??[scopes]
?  ?  ??scope_settings.xml
?  ??.name
?  ??Demo.iml
?  ??encodings.xml
?  ??misc.xml
?  ??modules.xml
?  ??vcs.xml
?  ??workspace.xml
?  ??test1.txt
?  ??[test2-2]
?  ?  ??[test2-3]
?  ?      ??test2
?  ?      ??test2-3-1
?  ??test2
Answered By: legendmohe

Answer #3:

There are more suitable functions for this in os package. But if you have to use os.walk, here is what I come up with

def walkdir(dirname):
    for cur, _dirs, files in os.walk(dirname):
        pref = ''
        head, tail = os.path.split(cur)
        while head:
            pref += '---'
            head, _tail = os.path.split(head)
        for f in files:


>>> walkdir('.')
Answered By: zaquest

Answer #4:

Recursive walk through a directory where you get ALL files from all dirs in the current directory and you get ALL dirs from the current directory – because codes above don’t have a simplicity (imho):

for root, dirs, files in os.walk(rootFolderPath):
    for filename in files:
        doSomethingWithFile(os.path.join(root, filename))
    for dirname in dirs:
        doSomewthingWithDir(os.path.join(root, dirname))
Answered By: Erhard Dinhobl

Answer #5:

You can use os.walk, and that is probably the easiest solution, but here is another idea to explore:

import sys, os

FILES = False

def main():
    if len(sys.argv) > 2 and sys.argv[2].upper() == '/F':
        global FILES; FILES = True
        print('Usage: {} <directory>'.format(os.path.basename(sys.argv[0])))

def tree(path):
    path = os.path.abspath(path)
    dirs, files = listdir(path)[:2]
    walk(path, dirs, files)
    if not dirs:
        print('No subfolders exist')

def walk(root, dirs, files, prefix=''):
    if FILES and files:
        file_prefix = prefix + ('|' if dirs else ' ') + '   '
        for name in files:
            print(file_prefix + name)
    dir_prefix, walk_prefix = prefix + '+---', prefix + '|   '
    for pos, neg, name in enumerate2(dirs):
        if neg == -1:
            dir_prefix, walk_prefix = prefix + '\---', prefix + '    '
        print(dir_prefix + name)
        path = os.path.join(root, name)
            dirs, files = listdir(path)[:2]
            walk(path, dirs, files, walk_prefix)

def listdir(path):
    dirs, files, links = [], [], []
    for name in os.listdir(path):
        path_name = os.path.join(path, name)
        if os.path.isdir(path_name):
        elif os.path.isfile(path_name):
        elif os.path.islink(path_name):
    return dirs, files, links

def enumerate2(sequence):
    length = len(sequence)
    for count, value in enumerate(sequence):
        yield count, count - length, value

if __name__ == '__main__':

You might recognize the following documentation from the TREE command in the Windows terminal:

Graphically displays the folder structure of a drive or path.

TREE [drive:][path] [/F] [/A]

   /F   Display the names of the files in each folder.
   /A   Use ASCII instead of extended characters.
Answered By: Noctis Skytower

Answer #6:


import os 

def tracing(a):
    global i>
    for item in os.listdir(a):
        if os.path.isfile(item):
            print i + item 
            print i + item 

i = "---"
Answered By: deepak kumar

Answer #7:

This does it for folder names:

def printFolderName(init_indent, rootFolder):
    fname = rootFolder.split(os.sep)[-1]
    root_levels = rootFolder.count(os.sep)
    # os.walk treats dirs breadth-first, but files depth-first (go figure)
    for root, dirs, files in os.walk(rootFolder):
        # print the directories below the root
        levels = root.count(os.sep) - root_levels
        indent = ' '*(levels*2)
        print init_indent + indent + root.split(os.sep)[-1]
Answered By: Michael Lastufka

Answer #8:

Given a folder name, walk through its entire hierarchy recursively.

#! /usr/local/bin/python3
# - given a folder name, walk through its entire hierarchy
#                   - print folders and files within each folder

import os

def recursive_walk(folder):
    for folderName, subfolders, filenames in os.walk(folder):
        if subfolders:
            for subfolder in subfolders:
        print('nFolder: ' + folderName + 'n')
        for filename in filenames:
            print(filename + 'n')

Answered By: yaniv

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