### Question :

In solid mechanics, I often use Python and write code that looks like the following:

```
for i in range(3):
for j in range(3):
for k in range(3):
for l in range(3):
# do stuff
```

I do this really often that I start to wonder whether there is a more concise way to do this. The drawback of the current code is: if I comply with `PEP8`

, then I cannot exceed the 79-character-limit per line, and there is not too much space left, especially if this is again in a function of a class.

##
Answer #1:

Based on what you want to do, you can use the `itertools`

module to minimize the `for`

loops (or `zip`

).In this case `itertools.product`

would create what you have done with the 4 loops:

```
>>> list(product(range(3),repeat=4))
[(0, 0, 0, 0), (0, 0, 0, 1), (0, 0, 0, 2), (0, 0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1, 1),
(0, 0, 1, 2), (0, 0, 2, 0), (0, 0, 2, 1), (0, 0, 2, 2), (0, 1, 0, 0),
(0, 1, 0, 1), (0, 1, 0, 2), (0, 1, 1, 0), (0, 1, 1, 1), (0, 1, 1, 2),
(0, 1, 2, 0), (0, 1, 2, 1), (0, 1, 2, 2), (0, 2, 0, 0), (0, 2, 0, 1),
(0, 2, 0, 2), (0, 2, 1, 0), (0, 2, 1, 1), (0, 2, 1, 2), (0, 2, 2, 0),
(0, 2, 2, 1), (0, 2, 2, 2), (1, 0, 0, 0), (1, 0, 0, 1), (1, 0, 0, 2),
(1, 0, 1, 0), (1, 0, 1, 1), (1, 0, 1, 2), (1, 0, 2, 0), (1, 0, 2, 1),
(1, 0, 2, 2), (1, 1, 0, 0), (1, 1, 0, 1), (1, 1, 0, 2), (1, 1, 1, 0),
(1, 1, 1, 1), (1, 1, 1, 2), (1, 1, 2, 0), (1, 1, 2, 1), (1, 1, 2, 2),
(1, 2, 0, 0), (1, 2, 0, 1), (1, 2, 0, 2), (1, 2, 1, 0), (1, 2, 1, 1),
(1, 2, 1, 2), (1, 2, 2, 0), (1, 2, 2, 1), (1, 2, 2, 2), (2, 0, 0, 0),
(2, 0, 0, 1), (2, 0, 0, 2), (2, 0, 1, 0), (2, 0, 1, 1), (2, 0, 1, 2),
(2, 0, 2, 0), (2, 0, 2, 1), (2, 0, 2, 2), (2, 1, 0, 0), (2, 1, 0, 1),
(2, 1, 0, 2), (2, 1, 1, 0), (2, 1, 1, 1), (2, 1, 1, 2), (2, 1, 2, 0),
(2, 1, 2, 1), (2, 1, 2, 2), (2, 2, 0, 0), (2, 2, 0, 1), (2, 2, 0, 2),
(2, 2, 1, 0), (2, 2, 1, 1), (2, 2, 1, 2), (2, 2, 2, 0), (2, 2, 2, 1),
(2, 2, 2, 2)]
```

And in your code you can do :

```
for i,j,k,l in product(range(3),repeat=4):
#do stuff
```

This function is equivalent to the following code, except that the actual implementation does not build up intermediate results in memory:

`def product(*args, **kwds): # product('ABCD', 'xy') --> Ax Ay Bx By Cx Cy Dx Dy # product(range(2), repeat=3) --> 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 pools = map(tuple, args) * kwds.get('repeat', 1) result = [[]] for pool in pools: result = [x+[y] for x in result for y in pool] for prod in result: yield tuple(prod)`

**Edit**:As @ PeterE says in comment `product()`

can be used even if the ranges have differing length :

```
product(range(3),range(4),['a','b','c'] ,some_other_iterable)
```

##
Answer #2:

The idea to use `itertools.product`

is a good one. Here’s a more general approach that will support ranges of varying sizes.

```
from itertools import product
def product_of_ranges(*ns):
for t in product(*map(range, ns)):
yield t
for i, j, k in product_of_ranges(4, 2, 3):
# do stuff
```

##
Answer #3:

It won’t be more concise as it will cost you a generator function, but at least you won’t be bothered by PEP8 :

```
def tup4(n):
for i in range(n):
for j in range(n):
for k in range(n):
for l in range(n):
yield (i, j, k, l)
for (i, j, k, l) in tup4(3):
# do your stuff
```

(in python 2.x you should use `xrange`

instead of `range`

in the generator function)

EDIT:

Above method should be fine when the depth of the pyramid is known. But you can also make a generic generator that way without any external module :

```
def tup(n, m):
""" Generate all different tuples of size n consisting of integers < m """
l = [ 0 for i in range(n)]
def step(i):
if i == n : raise StopIteration()
l[i] += 1
if l[i] == m:
l[i] = 0
step(i+ 1)
while True:
yield tuple(l)
step(0)
for (l, k, j, i) in tup(4, 3):
# do your stuff
```

(I used `(l, k, j, i)`

because in above generator, first index varies first)

##
Answer #4:

This is equivalent:

```
for c in range(3**4):
i = c // 3**3 % 3
j = c // 3**2 % 3
k = c // 3**1 % 3
l = c // 3**0 % 3
print(i,j,k,l)
```

If you’re doing this all the time, consider using a general generator for it:

```
def nestedLoop(n, l):
return ((tuple((c//l**x%l for x in range(n-1,-1,-1)))) for c in range(l**n))
for (a,b,c,d) in nestedLoop(4,3):
print(a,b,c,d)
```