### Question :

I am processing a text file containing coordinates x, y, z

```
1 128 1298039
123388 0 2
....
```

every line is delimited into 3 items using

```
words = line.split()
```

After processing data I need to write coordinates back in another txt file so as items in each column are aligned right (as well as the input file). Every line is composed of the coordinates

```
line_new = words[0] + ' ' + words[1] + ' ' words[2].
```

Is there any manipulator like `std::setw()`

etc. in C++ allowing to set the width and alignment?

##
Answer #1:

Try this approach using the newer `str.format`

syntax:

```
line_new = '{:>12} {:>12} {:>12}'.format(word[0], word[1], word[2])
```

And here’s how to do it using the old `%`

syntax (useful for older versions of Python that don’t support `str.format`

):

```
line_new = '%12s %12s %12s' % (word[0], word[1], word[2])
```

##
Answer #2:

It can be achieved by using `rjust`

:

```
line_new = word[0].rjust(10) + word[1].rjust(10) + word[2].rjust(10)
```

##
Answer #3:

You can align it like that:

```
print('{:>8} {:>8} {:>8}'.format(*words))
```

where `>`

means “**align to right**” and `8`

is the **width** for specific value.

And here is a proof:

```
>>> for line in [[1, 128, 1298039], [123388, 0, 2]]:
print('{:>8} {:>8} {:>8}'.format(*line))
1 128 1298039
123388 0 2
```

Ps. `*line`

means the `line`

list will be unpacked, so `.format(*line)`

works similarly to `.format(line[0], line[1], line[2])`

(assuming `line`

is a list with only three elements).

##
Answer #4:

I really enjoy a new literal string interpolation in Python 3.6+:

```
line_new = f'{word[0]:>12} {word[1]:>12} {word[2]:>12}'
```

Reference: PEP 498 — Literal String Interpolation

##
Answer #5:

Here is another way how you can format using ‘f-string’ format:

```
print(
f"{'Trades:':<15}{cnt:>10}",
f"n{'Wins:':<15}{wins:>10}",
f"n{'Losses:':<15}{losses:>10}",
f"n{'Breakeven:':<15}{evens:>10}",
f"n{'Win/Loss Ratio:':<15}{win_r:>10}",
f"n{'Mean Win:':<15}{mean_w:>10}",
f"n{'Mean Loss:':<15}{mean_l:>10}",
f"n{'Mean:':<15}{mean_trd:>10}",
f"n{'Std Dev:':<15}{sd:>10}",
f"n{'Max Loss:':<15}{max_l:>10}",
f"n{'Max Win:':<15}{max_w:>10}",
f"n{'Sharpe Ratio:':<15}{sharpe_r:>10}",
)
```

This will provide the following output:

```
Trades: 2304
Wins: 1232
Losses: 1035
Breakeven: 37
Win/Loss Ratio: 1.19
Mean Win: 0.381
Mean Loss: -0.395
Mean: 0.026
Std Dev: 0.56
Max Loss: -3.406
Max Win: 4.09
Sharpe Ratio: 0.7395
```

What you are doing here is you are saying that the first column is 15 chars long and it’s left justified and second column (values) is 10 chars long and it’s right justified.

##
Answer #6:

Simple tabulation of the output:

```
a = 0.3333333
b = 200/3
print("variable a variable b")
print("%10.2f %10.2f" % (a, b))
```

output:

```
variable a variable b
0.33 66.67
```

**%10.2f:** 10 is the minimum length and 2 is the number of decimal places.

##
Answer #7:

To do it by using f-string and with control of the number of trailing digits:

```
print(f'A number -> {my_number:>20.5f}')
```